Constitutional laws – Unitary plus national systems?

One Big Government Family The Unitary Creditor Doctrine Under 553

A unitary state is the opposite of a federation where powers are dispersed. A unitary state only exercises the powers that the central government decides to delegate. Most states worldwide work under a unitary system of government, for example, 165 out of a possible 192 states that are members of the UN are unitary states.

That means making sure corporations pay their fair share locally for the wealth created locally by people’s work. Needless to say, China is facing the serious question of the solidarity of all its people. The concept of the composite state, as proposed in this essay, should be viewed and upheld as a fundamental and accommodative idea on which further appropriate institutional arrangements could be based. This concept is a formulation deeply rooted in the Constitution and in the reality of China; it is not a groundless creation or castle in the air.

There is no or little room in the constitution for the development of any kind of genuine autonomous regime. “One country, two systems” is first viewed as a political thought and principle. As a matter of fact, this idea was first presented as a solution to the problems of Taiwan and, later on, of Hong Kong.

In order to form a government, however, more than half the membership of the Cabinet is required to belong to the Church of Norway. This has sparked controversy regarding an ongoing debate of separation of church and state in Norway. The current Prime Minister is Jens Stoltenberg, the leader of the Norwegian Labour Party . After Sweden broke out of the Kalmar Union in 1521, Norway remained with Denmark until 1814, a total of 436 years. During the national romanticism of the 19th century, this period was by some referred to as the “400-Year Night”, since all of the kingdom’s royal, intellectual, and administrative power was centred in Copenhagen in Denmark. With the introduction of Protestantism in 1536, the archbishopric in Trondheim was dissolved, and Norway effectually became a tributary to Denmark, and the church’s incomes were distributed to the court in Copenhagen instead.

Of the 97 airports in Norway, 52 are public, and 46 are operated by the state-owned Avinor.Seven airports have more than one million passengers annually. 41,089,675 passengers passed through Norwegian airports in 2007, of which 13,397,458 were international. There are approximately 92,946 kilometres of road network in Norway, of which 72,033 kilometres are paved and 664 kilometres are motorway. There are four tiers of road routes; national, county, municipal and private, with only the national roads numbered en route. The most important national routes are part of the European route scheme, and the two most prominent are the E6 going north-south through the entire country, while E39 follows the West Coast. National and county roads are managed by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration.

The national government, as well as the local governments, are allowed to function independently in their own jurisdictions. Section 553 of the Bankruptcy Code recognizes that except as provided in that section, title 11 of the U.S. Code does not affect any right of a creditor to offset a mutual debt owing by such creditor to the debtor if the mutual debts arose prior to the commencement of the bankruptcy case. When more than one department, agency or instrumentality of the federal or state government are creditors in a bankruptcy case, the issue of whether those entities ought to be considered a single creditor for purposes of §553 must be considered. Although within the last few years four circuit courts of appeal have concluded that various governmental entities should be treated as a single or unitary creditor under §553, not all circuit courts have opined on the issue. This article analyzes the legal authorities that have grappled with the unitary government creditor issue in the context of set-offs and considers points relevant to the breadth to which such doctrine should be applied.

Leave a Reply