Constitutional legislation – Unitary plus national systems?

How To Use “unitary Government” In A Sentence

If local self-government interests average citizens less than it should, maybe at least it still has much to teach their elected officials. Supplying thousands of state and local elective offices, a federal system like America’s creates a big market for professional politicians. Many of them (for example, state governors and big-city mayors) have demanding jobs. Their challenges help prepare the nation’s pool of future political leaders.

Implementation of these systems may also require that central institutions be established to develop and maintain the reporting systems, to train and support local officials, and to monitor and analyze developments in subnational finance. Civil service reform is usually a supporting strategy for more general decentralization in government operations or service delivery. One does not decentralize the civil service as an end in itself — one does so in order to provide services better, manage resources more efficiently, or support other general outcome goals. The civil service as a whole can be seen as one of the main instruments with which the government fulfills its obligations. In the context of decentralization, this tool must often be reshaped in order to perform a new set of duties efficiently, equitably, and effectively. Reform of the civil service, therefore, is the process of modifying rules and incentives to obtain a more efficient, dedicated and performing government labor-force in newly decentralized environment.

In the area of model-based fault detection, the H∞/H_ optimization is a problem of seeking the balance between the robustness to disturbances and the sensitivity to faults. Although the theoretical optimum cannot be obtained due to the involvement of the inverse of strictly-proper systems, the proposed solution can approximate to the theoretical optimum at any required accuracy because of the special property of a unitary system. Mitchel A. Sollenberger is professor of political science at the University of Michigan-Dearborn. The central gateway by air to Norway is Oslo Airport, Gardermoen, located about 50 kilometres north of Oslo with departures to most European countries and some intercontinental destinations. It is hub for the two major Norwegian airlines Scandinavian Airlines System and Norwegian Air Shuttle, and for regional aircraft from Western Norway. The government controls its petroleum resources through a combination of state ownership in major operators in the oil fields (with approximately 62% ownership in Statoil in 2007) and the fully state-owned Petoro, which has a market value of about twice Statoil, and SDFI.

Bolivia probably has the most elaborate instrument along these lines with its municipal Vigilance Committees that are based on traditional local social structures and are charged with monitoring elected councils, encouraged to file actionable complaints with higher levels if needed. One way enhance local capacity is through training and practice is to allow local institutions to use a portion of program funds, or their own funds, to contract for the technical expertise that they feel is appropriate to their specific requirements. This technical help can often be found locally, and acquired quicker and cheaper than from central or regional sources. Similarly communities can be given block grants for their own capacity-building training programs. They can purchase the training they need to fill the gaps which they have identified in their own management and technical capacity. They can decide whether to buy the training from local, regional or central institutions.

Religious fundamentalism or extremist activities, though existing in China, do not constitute “normal religious activities,” as stated in the Constitution, and go against the status quo of order and law in China . In this context, even the widest possible autonomy will be subject to the high principle of unified sovereignty. 85 The current nationalist government, under the ruling party Kuomingtang, insists on a negotiation between “two political entities” within “one country” and declares the inapplicability of “one country, two systems” promoted by the mainland.

Meanwhile, the successful handover and transition of Hong Kong has proven that the Basic Law is a matter-of-factly efficient “power-division law” and has played well its role as the constitution of the region. Civil service reform –both capacity building and adjusting to decentralization– addresses the first of these requirements. There is fairly widespread agreement that capacity-building at all government levels is an essential component of decentralization. The sequencing and priority levels of training –whether to train local or central governments first, for example– depends on the country itself, although the subnational governments have generally been the first to be trained to accept their new responsibilities. There is less agreement over how to deliver the appropriate human resources package to the appropriate levels of government and how to coordinate human resource management across and between levels of government.

Leave a Reply