A political system in which a weak central government has limited authority, and the states have ultimate power. Here are all the possible meanings and translations of the word unitary government. However, it is interesting to note that Doe, an opinion regarding sovereign immunity, specifically held that a government-created entity should not be consolidated if the entity functioned in a “distinct private capacity.” Doe, supra at 498. An example of an entity established by Congress that was not to be consolidated under the unitary creditor doctrine was the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. when it acted as a private receiver. Building on the differences outlined in the previous section, we can identify few other aspects that differentiate federal and unitary governments. The debate on unitary and federal governments has been explored by scholars and academics, and has been reinterpreted by Arend Lijphart who mainly focused on democratic systems, and analyzed the difference between Westminster and Consensus democracies.
Investment in new infrastructure and maintenance is financed through the state budget, and subsidies are provided for passenger train operations. NSB operates long-haul trains, including night trains, regional services and four commuter train systems, around Oslo, Trondheim, Bergen and Stavanger. Due to the low population density, narrow shape and long coastlines, public transport in Norway is less developed than in many European countries, especially outside the cities. As such, Norway has old water transport traditions, but the Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications has in recent years implemented rail, road and air transport through numerous subsidiaries in order to develop the country’s infrastructure.
This indicates that worldwide public investment is a shared responsibility across levels of government, making its governance particularly complex. The OECD Council Recommendation on Effective Public Investment across Levels of Government, adopted in 2014, acknowledged the importance of better governance for public investment. Fiscal matters are one dimension of multilevel governance and they need to be complemented by other indicators to give a full picture of decentralisation systems. Several measures exist that address other dimensions as well.1 The Regional Authority Index and the Local Autonomy Index are comprehensive attempts to measure the real degree of power of subnational governments – beyond fiscal indicators.
In a federal system, a degree of autonomy is given to the individual states while maintaining a strong central authority and the possibility of tyranny is very low. Federal systems still have their share of power struggles, such as those seen in the American Civil War. Confederate governments are focused on states rights and the needs of the people in each state. The government tends to be more in touch with its citizenry, and tyranny is much less commonly seen.
As Sweden’s military was not strong enough to defeat the Norwegian forces outright and Norway’s treasury was not large enough to support a protracted war, and as British and Russian navies blockaded the Norwegian coast, the belligerents were forced to negotiate the Convention of Moss. According to the terms of the convention, Christian Frederik abdicated the Norwegian throne and authorized the Parliament of Norway to make the necessary constitutional amendments to allow for the personal union that Norway was forced to accept. On November 4, 1814, the Parliament elected Charles XIII of Sweden as king of Norway, thereby establishing the union with Sweden. Under this arrangement, Norway kept its liberal constitution and its own independent institutions, except for the foreign service.
This creates greater satisfaction with the management of national affairs and more prosperity. We’ve put together an infographic below to illustrate how unitary tax works. No one may make use of religion to engage in activities that disrupt public order, impair the health of citizens, or interfere with the educational system of the State. No State organ, public organization, or individual may compel citizens to believe in, or not to believe in, any religion; nor may they discriminate against citizens who believe in, or do not believe in, any religion. It is a French concept of a secular society, which connotes the absence of religious involvement in governmental affairs as well as absence of governmental involvement in religious affairs.