All of this requires a citizenry with the skills and dispositions necessary for republican self-government, that is, a citizen body whose members understand and act to promote justice. Protection from fellow citizens includes enforcing civil law that defines property, contracts and minor injuries so people can effectively exercise their right to acquire and possess property and sue people for less than criminal injuries. State laws must protect the integrity of the family by defining marriage and specifying duties and rights of family members. Local governments provide a safety net for the destitute and needy. In addition, government supports the minimal moral duties and rights of a free society through schools, encouragement of religion and safe-guarding public monuments to the nation’s heroes.
Figure 1Government is an interconnected part of our lives that protects its citizens, controls agreed-upon crimes, and regulates almost every market and industry to encourage fairness. It also represents one of the only constants throughout all of human civilization for the very reason that it defines civilization. This is due to government’s crucial role in creating, defining, maintaining, and preserving the societies and cultures that construct civilizations. Even among our early ancestors, who were predominantly nomadic or hunter-gatherers, overarching structures which provided leadership and guidance for group survival existed in their most basic forms. These structures were less well-defined and usually part of the unexpressed norms of group dynamics instead of settled contracts with set-in-stone laws, but they existed nonetheless. A leader or chief with a group of supporting elders would typically help to create a course of action for the group.
Disagreements over the extent to which the government should regulate its citizens typically falls along political lines. Conservative citizens feel that the central government should have less control over its people, while liberal citizens advocate for government intervention in the area of social welfare. Every dollar the government spends is first taken from citizens , thus violating their rights.
The formation, implementation and utilization of military forces are one of these factors. As is the participation in international diplomatic actions and agreements that provide protection from threats from foreign entities. An appeal is a request for a higher court to reverse the decision of a lower court. They can come from state courts if a case deals with federal law.
A city government might restrict new business development in residential areas. City governments are responsible for serving the needs of their citizens. States grant power to local governments and city officials work collaboratively with state and federal agencies on local issues.
This principle of protection explains the most common examples of government-in-action you are likely to see on a daily basis — private property, centralized currency, fire departments, and police. This also explains a lot of the things you don’t see frequently, but arguably have a larger impact on your life — product regulations, safety requirements, and zoning law, to name a few. According to the logic of the argument, then, the “consent” of the governed cannot mean simply the assent of the governed. Consent can only mean assent to a government that really does secure the rights human beings have by nature, thanks to their Creator, before they form the government.